Tag Archives: oral health

Assessment of Knowledge and Attitudes to Preserve Oral Health among Older People Aged 60+ in FYROM

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1 / F. Tozja2

1PZU “ProdentIdadija”, Skopje
2Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Skopje, FYROM


Introduction. In the last decade, the impact of oral health on overall health status in the elderly has attracted considerable attention. Elderly people are often not aware that oral diseases and tooth loss can be prevented. Oral health behaviour involves acquisition of individual habits for preservation and maintenance of oral health, such as regular brushing and brushing teeth, using fluoride-rich toothpastes and dental floss, reducing sugar in the diet and habit of regular visits to the dentist. The aim of this research was to assess knowledge and attitude toward maintenance and preservation of oral health in people over 60 years in FYROM.

Methods. This is a cross-sectional study of the population, older than 60 years in FYROM, who use dental services and treatment in public health institution, at the Faculty of Dentistry in Skopje (Clinic of Mouth and Periodontal Diseases) and in the Health Centre in Skopje. As an instrument of this research, a questionnaire which included issues related to oral health behaviour was used for the targeted population. 193 patients answered the questions in this questionnaire.

Results. The age of respondents was significantly associated with the frequency of brushing their teeth and interdental spaces, as well as the habits of frequent dental care visits to the dentist. The gender of the patients had a highly significant effect on the use of fluoride toothpastes and the time that had passed since their last visit to the dentist (p<0.01). Education level in elderly patients significantly affected the knowledge of the individual oral health care.

Conclusion. Respondents with higher education brushed their teeth and interdental spaces more frequently and had regular dental check-ups. Furthermore, they almost always used fluoride toothpaste when brushing their teeth. The increased concern for their own health correlated to a higher level of knowledge, awareness and attitudes about oral health care, and follow recommendations by a dentist. In FYROM, oral health behaviour of patients above 60 years is far behind the levelof care that is achieved in higher developed countries.

Keywords: Oral Health Care; Oral Health Behaviour; Population, old


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Citation Information: Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine. Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 26–32, ISSN (Online) 2335-0245, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bjdm-2015-0030, July 2015

DMFT Index among Institutionalized Elderly

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1 / K. Ivanovski2 / A. Minovska1

1University “Gotse Delchev”, Faculty of Medical Sciences, studies of dental medicin, Shtip, FYROM
2University “St. Kiril and Methodius”, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology and Periodontology, Skopje, FYROM


Introduction. Poor oral health among elderly is most common dental problem nowadays, especially among the institutionalized persons.

Aim. To detect DMFT index among the institutionalized elderly.

Material and Method. Oral examination was made to make adequate evaluation. A total number of 70 subjects were evaluated. DMFT index has been detected only with dental mirror and probe, without using additional instruments and methods.

Results. Average value of DMFT index in our survey was 24.84 ± 4.56 (with Confidence interval from 23.77 to 25.89). M-component was dominant − 21.56 ± 7.79 (with Confidence interval from 15.74 to 23.38). D-component indicated by carious teeth and persistent roots had value 2.60 ± 3.54 (with Confidence interval from 1.77 to 3.42). Mean value of teeth with definitive fillings (F-component of DMFT index) was 0.34 ± 1.42 (with Confidence interval from 0.33 to 1.01).

Conclusion. DMFT index among the institutionalized elderly had one of the biggest values in the literature. M-component was dominant and indicator of the absence of many teeth. Therefore it is of great importance to prepare adequate protocol for oral health care among the institutionalized elderly.

Keywords: Gerodontology; Institutionalized Elderly; DMFT Index


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Citation Information: Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine. Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 21–25, ISSN (Online) 2335-0245, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bjdm-2015-0029, July 2015

Oral Health Conditions of Older People: Focus on Balkan Countries

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1University of Minnesota, School of Dentistry, Advanced Education, Program in Periodontology, USA


Oral health plays a pivotal role in general health, especially in older people. Oral diseases may affect the development of systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke and hypertension. The most important oral health conditions that have been recorded in dental literature for older population include tooth loss, dental caries, periodontal diseases, xerostomia (dry mouth) and oral cancer. Edentulism influences social life, either causing aesthetic problems or affecting functional abilities, such as speaking, chewing and eating. Dental caries in older people is similar to that in people in their thirties. Socio-economic status and living area play a key role in the development of dental caries. In addition, the accumulation of several risk factors, such as plaque or systemic diseases, acts synergistically in the onset of periodontal disease in seniors. Furthermore, older people, mainly due to their medications, exhibit a reduced amount of saliva. Xerostomia causes difficulties in chewing, speaking and swallowing, and it has a substantial impact on older people’s lives. The prevalence of oral cancer is 1-10 per 100,000 patients, and several factors (smoking, alcohol, education, economic status) play crucial role. Limited data exists today that evaluates oral health conditions of seniors in the Balkan countries. Aging and socio-economic status of seniors in the Balkans are significantly associated with oral health problems.

Keywords: Oral Health; Aging; Balkan Peninsula; Tooth Loss; Dental Caries; Periodontal Disease; Xerostomia; Oral Cancer


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Citation Information: Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine. Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 59–64, ISSN (Online) 2335-0245, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bjdm-2015-0036, July 2015