Tag Archives: oral health

Assessment of Knowledge and Attitudes to Preserve Oral Health among Older People Aged 60+ in FYROM

[btn url=”http://balkandentaljournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Assessment-of-knowledge-and-attitudes-to-preserve-oral-health-among-older-people-aged-60-in-FYROM.pdf” text_color=”#ffffff” bg_color=”#81d742″ icon=”fa-file-pdf-o” icon_position=”start” size=”14″ id=”” target=”NewWindow”]Download Article[/btn]

1 / F. Tozja2

1PZU “ProdentIdadija”, Skopje
2Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Skopje, FYROM

Summary

Introduction. In the last decade, the impact of oral health on overall health status in the elderly has attracted considerable attention. Elderly people are often not aware that oral diseases and tooth loss can be prevented. Oral health behaviour involves acquisition of individual habits for preservation and maintenance of oral health, such as regular brushing and brushing teeth, using fluoride-rich toothpastes and dental floss, reducing sugar in the diet and habit of regular visits to the dentist. The aim of this research was to assess knowledge and attitude toward maintenance and preservation of oral health in people over 60 years in FYROM.

Methods. This is a cross-sectional study of the population, older than 60 years in FYROM, who use dental services and treatment in public health institution, at the Faculty of Dentistry in Skopje (Clinic of Mouth and Periodontal Diseases) and in the Health Centre in Skopje. As an instrument of this research, a questionnaire which included issues related to oral health behaviour was used for the targeted population. 193 patients answered the questions in this questionnaire.

Results. The age of respondents was significantly associated with the frequency of brushing their teeth and interdental spaces, as well as the habits of frequent dental care visits to the dentist. The gender of the patients had a highly significant effect on the use of fluoride toothpastes and the time that had passed since their last visit to the dentist (p<0.01). Education level in elderly patients significantly affected the knowledge of the individual oral health care.

Conclusion. Respondents with higher education brushed their teeth and interdental spaces more frequently and had regular dental check-ups. Furthermore, they almost always used fluoride toothpaste when brushing their teeth. The increased concern for their own health correlated to a higher level of knowledge, awareness and attitudes about oral health care, and follow recommendations by a dentist. In FYROM, oral health behaviour of patients above 60 years is far behind the levelof care that is achieved in higher developed countries.

Keywords: Oral Health Care; Oral Health Behaviour; Population, old

References

  1. Petersen PE, Ueda H. Oral Health in Ageing Societies. Integration of Oral Health and General Health. Report of the meeting at the WHO Centre for Health Development in Kobe, Japan, June 2005.
  2. Harford J. Population ageing and dental care. Community Dent and Oral Epidemiol, 2009; 37(2):97-103. [PubMed]
  3. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World population ageing. 2007.
  4. Statistical State Office. Statistical Review: Population and social statistics. Nov. 2011 accessed on this website http://www.stat.gov.mk
  5. Coleman P. Improving oral health care for the frail elderly: A review of widespread problems and best practices. Geriatric Nursing, 2002; Vol. 23, No 4.[Crossref]
  6. Andersson K. Oral health in old age. Perceptions among elderly persons and medical professionals. Division of Geriatric Dentistry, Institution ofOdontology, KarolinskaInstitutet, Stoskholm, Sweden, 2006.
  7. Axelsson P, Albandar JM, Rams TE. Prevention and control of periodontal diseases in developing and industrialized nations. Periodontol 2000, 2002; 29:235-246. [Crossref]
  8. Kelly M, Steele J, Nuttall N, Bradnock G, Morris J, Nunn J, Pine C, Pitts N, Treasure E, White D. Adult Dental Health Survey. Oral Health in the United Kingdom 1998. Office of National Statistics. London: The Stationary Office, 2000; pp 13-400.
  9. Walker A, Cooper A (Ed). Adult dental health survey. Oral health in United Kingdom, 1998. Office of National Statistics. London: The Stationery Office, 2000.
  10. Woods N, Whelton H, Kelleher V. Factor Influencing the Need for Dental Care amongst the Elderly in the Republic of Ireland. Centre for Policy Studies, National University of Ireland, Cork, 2009, accessed on this website www.lenus.ie/hse/
  11. Petersen PE, Kwan S. Evaluation of community-based oral health promotion and oral diseases prevention – WHO recommendations for improved evidence in public practice. Community Dent Health, 2004; 21:319-329.
  12. Vysniauskaite S. Oral health behavior, conditions and care among dentate elderly patients in Lithuania: preventive aspects. 2009.
  13. World Health Organization/Federation Dentaire Internationale. Global Goals for oral health by the year 2000. Int Dent J, 1982; 32:74-77.
  14. Petersen PE, Yamamoto T. Improving the oral health of older people: the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2005; 33:81-92. [Crossref]
  15. Sapuric M. Public health aspects of oral health in elderly, over 65 years in the Republic of Macedonia – state and implications for strategic planning. Master’s Thesis. March 2011.
  16. Health Strategy of the Republic of Macedonia, accessed on the website http://www.moh-hsmp.gov.mk
  17. Todd JE, Lader D. Adult Dental Health 1988. United Kingdom, 1990. London: Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1991.
  18. Tseveenjav B, Suominen AL, Vehkalahti MM. Oral health-related behaviours among dentate adults in Finland: findings from the Finnish Health 2000 Survey. Europ J Oral Sciences, 2012; 120(1):54-60. [Web of Science]
  19. ADA, 2007a. American Dental Association. Professionally applied topical fluoride: evidence-based clinical recommendations. J Dent Educ, 2007; pp 393-402.
  20. ADA 2000. American Dental Association. Division of Communications for the Dental Patient. ADA 2000; 131:1095.
  21. Attin T, Hornecker E. Tooth brushing and oral health: How frequently and when should tooth brushing be performed? Oral Health Prev Dent, 2005; 3:135-140. [PubMed]
  22. Berchier CE, Slot DE, Haps S, van der Wejden. The efficacy of dental floss in addition to a toothbrush on plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg, 2008; 6:265-279. [Crossref]
  23. World Health Organization, Geneva. Oral Health Surveys – basic methods, 1st Edition, 1973.
  24. World Health Organization, Geneva. Oral Health Surveys – basic methods, 2nd Edition, 1979.
  25. World Health Organization, Geneva. Oral Health Surveys – basic methods, 3rd Edition, 1987.
  26. World Health Organization, Geneva. Oral Health Surveys – basic methods, 4th Edition, 1999.
  27. Petersen PE, Aleksejuniene J, Christensen LB, Eriksen HM, Kalo I. Oral health behaviour and attitudes of adults in Lithuania. Acta Odontol Scand, 2000; 58:243-248. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Petersen PE. Sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries-international perspectives. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2005; 33:274-279. [Crossref]
  29. Petersen PE. The World Oral Health Report 2003: Continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century – the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. http://www.who.int/oral_health/media/en/orh_report03_en.pdf, accessed May 2009.
  30. Petersen PE. World Health Organization global policy for improvement of oral health. World Health Assembly 2007. Int Dent J, 2008; 58:115-121. [Webof Science]
  31. Petersen PE. Global Strategies for Promoting Oral Health – the approach of the World Health Organization, 2009.
  32. Petersen PE, Bourgeois DM, Brathhall D, Ogawa H. Oral Health Information Systems towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 83(9). September 2005.
  33. Sheiham A, Netuveli GS. Periodontal disease in Europe. Periodontol 2000, 2002; 29:104-121.
  34. Ling Z, Petersen PE, Wang HY, Bain JY, Zhang BX. Oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of adults in China. Int Dent J, 2005; 55:231-241.[Crossref]
  35. Bourgeois DM, Llodra JC (Ed). Health Surveillance in Europe. European Global Oral Health Indicators Development Project. Report Proceedings 2003. Paris: Quintessence International, 2004.
  36. Bourgeios DM. Health Surveillance in Europe. European Global Oral Health Indicators Development Project. Final Report 2003-2005.
  37. Petersen PE, Kandelman D, Arpin S, Ogawa H. Global oral health of older people. Call for public health action. Community Dent Health, 2010; 27(Suppl. 2):257-268. [PubMed]
Citation Information: Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine. Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 26–32, ISSN (Online) 2335-0245, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bjdm-2015-0030, July 2015

DMFT Index among Institutionalized Elderly

[btn url=”http://balkandentaljournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/DMFT-index-among-institutionalized-elderly.pdf” text_color=”#ffffff” bg_color=”#81d742″ icon=”fa-file-pdf-o” icon_position=”start” size=”14″ id=”” target=”NewWindow”]Download Article[/btn]

1 / K. Ivanovski2 / A. Minovska1

1University “Gotse Delchev”, Faculty of Medical Sciences, studies of dental medicin, Shtip, FYROM
2University “St. Kiril and Methodius”, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Pathology and Periodontology, Skopje, FYROM

Summary

Introduction. Poor oral health among elderly is most common dental problem nowadays, especially among the institutionalized persons.

Aim. To detect DMFT index among the institutionalized elderly.

Material and Method. Oral examination was made to make adequate evaluation. A total number of 70 subjects were evaluated. DMFT index has been detected only with dental mirror and probe, without using additional instruments and methods.

Results. Average value of DMFT index in our survey was 24.84 ± 4.56 (with Confidence interval from 23.77 to 25.89). M-component was dominant − 21.56 ± 7.79 (with Confidence interval from 15.74 to 23.38). D-component indicated by carious teeth and persistent roots had value 2.60 ± 3.54 (with Confidence interval from 1.77 to 3.42). Mean value of teeth with definitive fillings (F-component of DMFT index) was 0.34 ± 1.42 (with Confidence interval from 0.33 to 1.01).

Conclusion. DMFT index among the institutionalized elderly had one of the biggest values in the literature. M-component was dominant and indicator of the absence of many teeth. Therefore it is of great importance to prepare adequate protocol for oral health care among the institutionalized elderly.

Keywords: Gerodontology; Institutionalized Elderly; DMFT Index

References

  1. Ahluwalia KP, Cheng B, Josephs PK, Lalla E, Lamster IB. Oral disease experience of older adults seeking oral health services. Gerodontology, 2010; 27(2):96-103. [PubMed] [Crossref] [Web of Science]
  2. Alian AY, McNally ME, Fure S, Birkhed D. Assessment of Caries Risk in Elderly Patients Using the Cariogram Model. J Can Dent Assoc, 2006; 72(5):459-463. [PubMed]
  3. Ambjøsrnsen E. Decayed, missing, and filled teeth among elderly people in a Norwegian municipality. Acta Odontol Scand, 1986; 44(2):123-130.[Crossref]
  4. Bourgeois D, Berger P, Hescot P, Leclercq MH, Doury J. Oral health status in 65-74 years old adults in France, 1995. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique, 1999; 47(1):55-59.
  5. Carter G, Lee M, McKelvey V, Sourial A, Halliwell R, Livingston M. Oral health status and oral treatment needs of dependent elderly people in Christchurch. NZMJ, 2004; 117(1194:1-10.
  6. Chalmers J, Hodge C, Fuss J, Spencer A, Carter K. The Prevalence and Experience of Oral Diseases in Adelaide Nursing Home Residents. Australian Dental Journal, 2002; 47:123-130. [PubMed] [Crossref]
  7. Comfort AO, King T, Moveni M, Tuisuva J. Dental health of Fiji institutionalized elderly (2003). Pac Health Dialog, 2004; 11(1):38-43.
  8. Cornejo M, Pérez G, Costa-de Lima K, Casals-Peidro E, Borrell C. Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in institutionalized elderly in Barcelona (Spain). Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal, 2013; 18(2):e285-292. [Crossref] [Web of Science]
  9. Daniel Gati, Alexandre Vieira. Elderly at Greater Risk for Root Caries: A Look at the Multifactorial Risks with Emphasis on Genetics Susceptibility. Int J Dent, 2011.
  10. Ergün Kunt G, Kökçü D, Ceylan G, Yilmaz N, Umut Güler A. Pulpal blood flow changes in abutment teeth of removable partial dentures. Bosn J Basic Med Sci, 2009; 9(4):296-300.
  11. Esmeriz CEC, Meneghim MC, Ambrosano GMB. Self-perception of oral health in non-institutionalised elderly of Piracicaba city, Brazil. Gerodontology, 2012; 29:e281-e289. [Web of Science] [Crossref]
  12. Gaiao LR, de Almeida MEL, FilhoGB, Leggat P, Heukelbach J. Poor Dental Status and Oral Hygiene Practices in Institutionalized Older People in Northeast Brazil. 2009; doi:10.1155/2009/846081 [Crossref]
  13. Glažar Irena. Procjena oralnog zdravlja štićenika ustanova za njegu starijih osoba, (Oral helath evaluation in the institutionalized elderly). PhD Thesis, Medical Faculty of Rijeka, Croatia. 2010.
  14. King T, Kapadia D. Oral health and treatment needs of institutionalised elderly and disadvantaged population of Figi (1997). Pacific Health Dialog, 2003; 10(1):35-40.
  15. Krasta I, Vidzis A, Brinkmane A, Cema I. Evaluation of Oral Therapeuthical and Surgical Treatment Needs among Retirement Age Population in Different Countries. Acta Chirurgica Latviensis, 2011; 11:125-129. [Crossref]
  16. Lo EC, Luo Y, Dyson JE. Oral health status of institutionalised elderly in Hong Kong. Community Dent Health, 2004; 21(3):224-226.
  17. Mason J, Peare MS, Walls AWG, Parker L, Steele JG. How do factors at different stages of the life course contribute to Oral-health-related quality of life in the middle age for men and women. J Oral Health, 2006; 12(2):125-131.
  18. Matovska Lj. Cariology. Sigmapres: Skopje, 2011; p 72. (in Macedonian)
  19. Milstein L, Rudolph MJ. Oral health status in an institutionalised elderly Jewish population. SADJ, 2000; 55(6):302-306.
  20. Petelin M, Cotič J, Perkič K, Pavlič A. Oral health of the elderly living in residential homes in Slovenia. Gerodontology, 2012; 29:e447–e457. [Crossref]
  21. Philip P, Rogers C, Kruger E, Tennant M. Caries experience of institutionalized elderly and its association with dementia and functional status. Int J Dent Hyg, 2012; 10(2):122-127. [Crossref] [PubMed] [Web of Science]
  22. Piuvezam G, de Lima KC. Factors associated with missing teeth in the Brazilian elderly institutionalised population. Gerodontology, 2013; 30(2):141-149.[Crossref] [Web of Science]
  23. Piuvezam G, de Lima KC. Self-perceived oral health status in institutionalized elderly in Brazil. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 2012; 55(1):5-11. [PubMed][Crossref]
  24. Rao A, Sequeira P, Peter S, Rajeev A. Oral health status of the institutionalized elderly in Mangalore, India. Indian J Dent Res, 1999; 10(2):55-61.[PubMed]
  25. Rihs LB, da Silva DD, da Luz Rosário de Sousa M. Dental caries in an elderly population in Brazil. J Appl Oral Sci, 2009; 17(1). [Crossref] [Web of Science]
  26. Ruiz-Medina P, Bravo M, Gil-Montoya JA, Montero J. Discrimination of functional capacity for oral hygiene in elderly Spanish people by the Barthel General Index. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2005; 33(5):363-369. [Crossref]
  27. Samnieng P, Ueno M, Shinada K, Zaitsu T, Wright FA, Kawaguchi Y. Association of hyposalivation with oral function, nutrition and oral health in community-dwelling elderly. Thai Community Dent Health, 2012; 29(1):117-123.
  28. Samson H, Strand GV, Haugejorden O. Change in oral health status among the institutionalized Norwegian elderly over a period of 16 years. Acta Odontol Scand, 2008; 66(6):368-373. [Web of Science] [Crossref]
  29. Simunković SK, Boras VV, Pandurić J, Zilić IA. Oral health among institutionalised elderly in Zagreb, Croatia. Gerodontology, 2005; 22(4):238-241.[PubMed] [Crossref]
  30. Steele JG, Sheiham A, Marcenes W, Fay N, Walls AW. Clinical and behavioural risk indicators for root caries in older people. Gerodontology, 2001; 18(2):95-101. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. Unluer S, Gokalp S, Doğan BG. Oral health status of the elderly in a residential home in Turkey. Gerodontology, 2007; 24:22-29. [Crossref]
  32. vanWyk GW, Farman AG, Staz J. Tooth survival in institutionalized elderly Cape Coloreds from the Cape Peninsula of South Africa. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1977; 5:185-189. [Crossref]
  33. Vrbic V, Homan D, Zavrsnik B. Oral health in Slovenia, Yugoslavia. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1991; 19(2):72-73. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. Vrbic V, Vulović M, Rajić Z, Topić B, Tatić E, Malić M, Milić D, Aurer-Kozelj J, Neceva L, Redzepagić S, et al. Oral health in SFR Yugoslavia in 1986.Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1988; 16(5):286-288. [Crossref]
  35. Wyatt CCL. Long-term Care Hospitals. Part II: Dental Caries Status. J Can Dent Assoc, 2002; 68(6). [PubMed]
  36. Zusman SP, Ponizovsky AM, Dekel D, Masarwa AE, Ramon T, Natapov L, et al. An assessment of the dental health of chronic institutionalized patients with psychiatric disease in Israel. Spec Care Dentist, 2010; 30(1):18-22. [PubMed]
Citation Information: Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine. Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 21–25, ISSN (Online) 2335-0245, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bjdm-2015-0029, July 2015

Oral Health Conditions of Older People: Focus on Balkan Countries

[btn url=”http://balkandentaljournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Oral-Health-Conditions-of-Older-People-Focus-on-the-Balkan-Countries.pdf” text_color=”#ffffff” bg_color=”#81d742″ icon=”fa-file-pdf-o” icon_position=”start” size=”14″ id=”” target=”NewWindow”]Download Article[/btn]

1

1University of Minnesota, School of Dentistry, Advanced Education, Program in Periodontology, USA

Summary

Oral health plays a pivotal role in general health, especially in older people. Oral diseases may affect the development of systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke and hypertension. The most important oral health conditions that have been recorded in dental literature for older population include tooth loss, dental caries, periodontal diseases, xerostomia (dry mouth) and oral cancer. Edentulism influences social life, either causing aesthetic problems or affecting functional abilities, such as speaking, chewing and eating. Dental caries in older people is similar to that in people in their thirties. Socio-economic status and living area play a key role in the development of dental caries. In addition, the accumulation of several risk factors, such as plaque or systemic diseases, acts synergistically in the onset of periodontal disease in seniors. Furthermore, older people, mainly due to their medications, exhibit a reduced amount of saliva. Xerostomia causes difficulties in chewing, speaking and swallowing, and it has a substantial impact on older people’s lives. The prevalence of oral cancer is 1-10 per 100,000 patients, and several factors (smoking, alcohol, education, economic status) play crucial role. Limited data exists today that evaluates oral health conditions of seniors in the Balkan countries. Aging and socio-economic status of seniors in the Balkans are significantly associated with oral health problems.

Keywords: Oral Health; Aging; Balkan Peninsula; Tooth Loss; Dental Caries; Periodontal Disease; Xerostomia; Oral Cancer

References

  1. Berkey D, Berg R. Geriatric oral health issues in the United States. Int Dent J, 2001; 51:254-264. [PubMed]
  2. Persson RE, Hollender LG, Powell LV, MacEntee MI, Wyatt CCL, Kiyak HA, Persson GR. Assessment of periodontal conditions and systemic disease in older subjects. I. Focus on osteoporosis. J Clin Periodontol, 2002; 29:796-802. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. British Geriatrics Society. Geriatric Medicine Defined. [online] Available at: http://www.bgs.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=981:geriatricsdefined&catid=1:administration (accessed on March 25th, 2015).
  4. United Nations. World population Ageing 2013. Economic and social affairs. [online] New York: United Nations. Available at:http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/ageing/WorldPopulationAgeing2013.pdf (Accessed March 25th, 2015).
  5. Petersen PE, Yamamoto T. Improving the oral health of older people: the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2005; 33:81-92. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. World health organization. Oral health fact sheet No 318. 2012 Apr; Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs318/en/index.html(Accessed on March 23rd, 2015).
  7. Nowjack-Raymer RE, Sheiham A. Association of edentulism and diet and nutrition in US adults. J Dent Res, 2003; 82:123-126. [Crossref]
  8. Idowu AT, Handelman SL, Graser GN. Effect of denture stability, retention, and tooth form on masticatory function in the elderly. Gerodontics, 1987; 3:161-164. [PubMed]
  9. Esan TA, Olusile AO, Akeredolu PA, Esan AO. Socio-demographic factors and edentulism: The Nigerian experience. BMC Oral Health, 2004; 4:3.[PubMed] [Crossref]
  10. Griffin SO, Griffin PM, Swann JL, Zlobin N. Estimating rates of new root caries in older adults. J Dent Res, 2004; 83:634-638. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Broadbent JM, Thomson WM, Poulton R. Trajectory patterns of dental caries experience in the permanent dentition to the fourth decade of life. J Dent Res, 2008; 87:69-72. [PubMed] [Crossref] [Web of Science]
  12. Quinteros ME, Cáceres DD, Soto A, Mariño RJ, Giacaman RA. Caries experience and use of dental services in rural and urban adults and older adults from central Chile. Int Dent J, 2014; 64:260-268. [Crossref] [Web of Science]
  13. Page RC. Periodontal diseases in the elderly: a critical evaluation of current information. Gerodontology, 1984; 1:63-70. [Crossref]
  14. Eke PI, Dye BA, Wei L, Thornton-Evans GO, Genco RJ (CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance workgroup). Prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: 2009 and 2010. J Dent Res, 2012; 91:914-920.
  15. Orellana MF, Lagravere MO, Boychuk DG, Major PW, Flores-Mir C. Prevalence of xerostomia in population-based samples: a systematic review. J Public Health Dent, 2006; 66:152-158. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Ship JA, Pillemer SR, Baum BJ. Xerostomia and the geriatric patient. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2002; 50:535-543. [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. Napeñas JJ, Brennan MT, Fox PC. Diagnosis and treatment of xerostomia (dry mouth). Odontology, 2009; 97:76-83. [PubMed] [Web of Science][Crossref]
  18. Glick M, Johnson NW. Oral and oropharyngeal cancer: what are the next steps? J Am Dent Assoc, 2011; 142:892-894. [PubMed] [Crossref]
  19. Johnson NW, Warnakulasuriya KA. Epidemiology and aetiology of oral cancer in the United Kingdom. Community Dent Health, 1993; 10 (Suppl 1):13-29.
  20. Nalçaci R, Erdemir EO, Baran I. Evaluation of the oral health status of the people aged 65 years and over living in near rural district of Middle Anatolia, Turkey. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 2007; 45:55-64. [Web of Science] [PubMed] [Crossref]
  21. Kossioni AE, Kossionis GE, Polychronopoulou A. Oral health status of elderly hospitalised psychiatric patients. Gerodontology, 2012; 29:272-283. [Web of Science] [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Kossioni AE, Kossionis GE, Polychronopoulou A. Self-reported oral complaints in older mentally ill patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2013; 13:358-364.[Crossref] [PubMed] [Web of Science]
  23. Baderca F, Vincze D, Balica N, Solovan C. Mucosal melanomas in the elderly: challenging cases and review of the literature. Clin Interv Aging, 2014; 9:929-937. [PubMed] [Crossref] [Web of Science]
  24. Triantos D. Intra-oral findings and general health conditions among institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly in Greece. J Oral Pathol Med, 2005; 34:577-582. [PubMed] [Crossref]
  25. Kossioni AE, Karkazis HC. Socio-medical condition and oral functional status in an older institutionalised population. Gerodontology, 1999; 16:21-28.[Crossref]
  26. Kossioni AE, Kossionis GE, Polychronopoulou A. Variation in oral health parameters between older people with and without mental disorders. Spec Care Dentist, 2013; 33:232-238. [PubMed]
  27. Erić J, Stančić I, Sojić LT, Jelenković Popovac A, Tsakos G. Validity and reliability of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) scale in the elderly population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Gerodontology, 2012; 29:e902-908. [Crossref] [Web of Science]
  28. Nazliel HE, Hersek N, Ozbek M, Karaagaoglu E. Oral health status in a group of the elderly population residing at home. Gerodontology, 2012; 29:e761-767. [Crossref]
  29. Doğan BG, Gökalp S. Tooth loss and edentulism in the Turkish elderly. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 2012; 54:e162-166. [Crossref] [Web of Science]
  30. Namal N, Can G, Vehid S, Koksal S, Kaypmaz A. Dental health status and risk factors for dental caries in adults in Istanbul, Turkey. East Mediter Health J, 2008; 14:110-118.
  31. Özçaka Ö, Becerik S, Bıçakcı N, Kiyak AH. Periodontal disease and systemic diseases in an older population. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 2014; 59:474-479.[Crossref] [Web of Science]
  32. Poverty, social exclusion and health systems in the WHO European Region. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2010.
  33. Kossioni A, Bellou O. Eating habits in older people in Greece: The role of age, dental status and chewing difficulties. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 2001; 52:197-201. [Web of Science] [Crossref]
  34. Anastassiadou V, Heath MR. Food choices and eating difficulty among elderly edentate patients in Greece. Gerodontology, 2002; 19:17-24. [Crossref][PubMed]
Citation Information: Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine. Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 59–64, ISSN (Online) 2335-0245, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/bjdm-2015-0036, July 2015