The Levels of Serum Immunoglobulin A, G and M in Oral Inflammatory Cysts before and after Surgical Therapy

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Oliver Dimitrovski1,2, Vancho Spirov1, Blagoja Dastevski3, Filip Koneski2

1Department of Oral Surgery and Implantology, University Dental Clinical Center “St. Pantelejmon”, Skopje, FYR Macedonia
2Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, FYR Macedonia
3Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, FYR Macedonia

Summary

Background/Aim: Cysts which appear in the orofacial region are represented as common pathological changes which underlying mechanism of development is still not fully clear. In recent years, a dominant role in the pathogenesis of cysts belongs to the immunopathological reactions. It is assumed that the loss of bone in cysts is due to the presence of complementary cascades, prostaglandins synthesis and numerous neutrophil granulocytes. The main objective was to determine the levels of Ig G, A and M in serum and saliva of patients with radicular, residual and periodontal cysts before and after the surgical treatment.

Material and Methods: The study included 185 patients, of which 150 patients were diagnosed with inflammatory cysts (radicular, periodontal and residual), while the control group consisted of 35 patients without presence of inflammatory cyst. The immunoglobulins were determined prior to the surgical removal of the cyst and one month after the procedure, when complete clinical wound healing was observed. The levels of these immunological markers were compared to each other before and after the cyst extirpation, taking into consideration the different cyst types. A comparison was also made between both examination and control group.

Results: The difference of the basic values of the immunoglobulins before therapy and the basic values of the immunoglobulins in the control group was statistically significant only in the group of residual and periodontal cysts for IgG and IgM The difference of the average values of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA and IgM) in the group with residual cysts before and one month after therapy is statistically significant (p=0.0000; p=0.0371; p=0.0276). A significant difference was registered in IgA among the three examined groups one month after surgical intervention.

Conclusions: The levels of serum immunoglobulins in patients with inflammatory cysts were elevated before the treatment and dropped after the cyst removal. This study suggests that the IgA, IgG and IgM may play an important role in the occurrence, development and persistence of the cystic lesions.

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